Apple II FTN - DiskCopy disk image

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Apple II
File Type Notes
                                                  Developer Technical Support

File Type:       $E0 (224)
Auxiliary Type:  $0005

Full Name:       DiskCopy disk image
Short Name:      DiskCopy disk image

Written by:      Matt Deatherage, Dave Lyons & Steve Christensen     May 1992

Files of this type and auxiliary type contain disk images from Apple's
DiskCopy program on the Macintosh.

DiskCopy is a program written by Steve Christensen of Apple Computer, Inc.,
for internal use in duplicating and distributing 3.5" floppy disks.  Because
of its utility in distributing disk images on the Macintosh, DiskCopy is used
in several Apple developer products even though DiskCopy is not an official
Apple product and is not supported as such.

Since the monthly Developer CD Series discs contain many DiskCopy disk images,
and since the AppleShare and HFS FSTs in System Software 6.0 and later
automatically translate DiskCopy files (HFS file type dImg and creator dCpy)
to Apple II file type $E0 and auxiliary type $0005, the format is provided
here for your utility use only.  Apple does not guarantee that files not
generated by DiskCopy will work with DiskCopy.


DiskCopy uses a simple checksum algorithm to help insure data integrity for
archived disk images. The algorithm for generating the 32-bit checksum is as

     Initialize checksum to zero
     For each data REVERSE WORD:
          Add the data REVERSE WORD to the checksum
          Rotate the 32-bit checksum right one bit (wrapping bit 0 to bit 31)

The following 65816 assembly language routine calculates a DiskCopy checksum.
It's not a speedy operation--it takes about 12 seconds to calculate the
checksum on an 800K disk image.  Anyone finding an assembly routine that can
perform this task in under 5 seconds may apply for their IIgs Certificate of
Deityship, as documented in the File Type Note for file type $B6.

(Oh, by the way, any entries have to be under 1K in size--the following
routine is 88 bytes.  So don't think unwinding loops is your ticket to fame
and fortune.)

* Compute checksum for DiskCopy data
* v1.2  by David A. Lyons, 18-May-92
* MPW IIgs assembly format
* Inputs on stack:
*    Push pointer to data (long)
*    Push size of data (long)  (Must be even!)
*    JSL CalcChecksum
*    STA TheChecksum+2
*    STX TheChecksum
* Output:
*    Checksum in A and X (bytes +0 and +1 in X, bytes +2 and +3 in A)
*    (The inputs have been removed from the stack)
CalcChecksum        PROC
                    phd                 ;save caller's direct page reg
                    lda #0
                    pha                 ;push initial checksum value (zero)

checksum            equ 1
oldD                equ checksum+4
theRTL              equ oldD+2
dataSize            equ theRTL+3
dataPtr             equ dataSize+4

*** Set dataSize to -(dataSize/2)-1 so we can count up by one
*** (instead of down by two) to see when we're done
                    lda <dataSize+2
                    lsr a
                    eor #$ffff
                    sta <dataSize+2
                    lda <dataSize
                    ror a
                    eor #$ffff
                    sta <dataSize

                    ldy #0
nextWord            inc <dataSize
                    bne moreData
                    inc <dataSize+2
                    beq noMoreData

*** Get next 16-bit word from the data buffer
                    lda [<dataPtr],y
                    xba                 ;swap to 65816 byte order

*** Add the data word to the checksum
                    adc <checksum
                    sta <checksum
                    bcc noCksumRoll
                    inc <checksum+2
*** Rotate the 32-bit checksum right one bit, wrapping bit 0 into bit 31
                    lda <checksum+2
                    lsr a
                    ror <checksum
                    bcc bit0was0
                    ora #$8000          ;if we rotated a 1 out of bit 0,
bit0was0            sta <checksum+2     ;  then set bit 31

*** Advance to the next word and go back for more
                    bne nextWord        ;go back for more data
                    inc <dataPtr+2
                    bra nextWord        ;go back for next bank of data

noMoreData          pla
                    tax                 ;pull checksum into YX (put in 68000

                    pld                 ;restore caller's direct page reg

                    lda 2,s
                    sta 2+8,s
                    lda 1,s
                    sta 1+8,s
                    pla                 ;discard input values




The following definition is used in this document in addition to those defined
for all Apple II file types:

Checksum   A 32-byte quantity calculated using the previously-defined
           algorithm.  When these are contained in the file, they are in
           REVERSE order.


All of the information for a DiskCopy disk image is in the data fork.  The
resource fork usually contains Macintosh resources (in Macintosh resource fork
format), including vers resources listing the checksums.  This allows
Macintosh users to use the Macintosh Finder's "Get Info..." function to
quickly examine the checksums.
The File Format

Because this is a native Macintosh file format, all the multi-byte constants
are stored in Reverse order.

diskName       (+000)  64 Bytes  A Pascal String containing the name of the
                                 disk.  This field takes 64 bytes
                                 regardless of the length of the String.
dataSize       (+064) Rev. Long  The number of bytes (not blocks) of user
                                 data.  User data is the 512 bytes of each
                                 block that a normal block-reading command
tagSize        (+068) Rev. Long  The number of bytes of tag data.  Tag data
                                 is the extra 12 bytes of "scavenger"
                                 information present on 400K and 800K
                                 Macintosh disks.  Apple II operating
                                 systems always leave these bytes zeroed,
                                 and they're not present on 720K or 1440K
                                 disks.  If there are no tag bytes, this
                                 field will be zero.
dataChecksum   (+072)  Checksum  Checksum of all the user data on the disk.
                                 The checksum algorithm is called for the
                                 entire disk, not on a block-by-block or
                                 sector-by-sector basis.  This is in
                                 Reverse order (most significant byte
tagChecksum    (+076)  Checksum  Checksum of all the tag data on the disk.
                                 If there is no tag data, this should be
                                 zero.  This is in Reverse order (most
                                 significant byte first).
diskFormat     (+080)      Byte  0 = 400K
                                 1 = 800K
                                 2 = 720K
                                 3 = 1440K  (all other values are reserved)
formatByte     (+081)      Byte  $12 = 400K
                                 $22 = >400K Macintosh (DiskCopy uses this
                                       value for all Apple II disks not
                                       800K in size, and even for some of
                                 $24 = 800K Apple II disk
private        (+082) Rev. Word  Must be $0100.  If this field is not
                                 $0100, the file may be in a different
userData       (+084)            dataSize Bytes
                                 The data blocks for the disk.  These are
                                 in order from block zero through the end
                                 of the disk.
tagData    (+xxx) tagSize Bytes  The tag data for this disk, starting with
                                 the tag data for the first block and
                                 proceeding in order.  This field is not
                                 present for 720K and 1440K disks, but it
                                 is present for all other formats even if
                                 all the data is zeroes.
Further Reference

   o   GS/OS Reference

This document is Copyright by Apple Computer, Inc.